Cooperation between nations has always been essential to counterterrorist operations, and it is also now necessary for homeland security systems. International treaties, laws, and informal agreements were enacted during the postwar era to create a semblance of formality and consistency to global counterterrorist efforts. However, cooperation at the operational level was not always consistent or mutually beneficial. In the era of homeland security, the New Terrorism, and international counterterrorist warfare, international cooperation at the operational level has become a central priority for policymakers. A good example of this priority is found in the new frontline missions of intelligence and criminal justice agencies. Discussion Questions How should international cooperation be implemented for law enforcement purposes? How can intelligence at the international level be disseminated to state and local authorities? In what ways should future homeland security initiatives be broadly adapted to the international terrorist environment? Should future homeland security policies task federal law enforcement agencies to operate internationally? To what extent should allied nations be briefed about domestic homeland security initiatives?